International Relations 1919-1939

Weimar Constitution

The signing of the Weimar Republic’s constitution

The Weimar Republic was officially established on 11th August 1919, when Friedrich Ebert signed the new constitution into law.

Wilson's stroke

Crisis for Versailles? The impact of Woodrow Wilson’s stroke while in office

Make Germany Pay

‘Make Germany Pay’ – the Treaty of Versailles

An overview of the background to the Paris Peace Conference in 1918, and an explanation of the aims of the ‘Big Three’.  It goes on to describe the terms of the Treaty of Versailles and Germany’s reaction to them.

‘Make Germany Pay’ – the Ruhr, hyperinflation, and recovery of Weimar Germany

Occupation of the Ruhr

Why did France and Belgium occupy the Ruhr in 1923?

On the 11th January 1923, French and Belgian troops marched into Germany and occupied the industrial Ruhr area.

The end of Germany’s strike in the Ruhr

On the 26th September 1923, German Chancellor Gustav Stresemann ended passive resistance in the Ruhr and resumed the payment of First World War reparations.

League of Nations

The foundation of the League of Nations

On the 10th January 1920, the Treaty of Versailles came into effect.

The Gap in the Bridge cartoon

Weaknesses in the foundation and structure of the League of Nations

This short clip from the BBC’s Curriculum Bites offers a good overview of the inherent weaknesses of the League of Nations.

The League of Nations in the 1920s

This revision podcast is aimed at students studying GCSE and IGCSE History.  It focuses on striking a balance between the successes and failures of the League of Nations in the 1920s, in order to best help students revise for an exam question on this topic.  It opens with advice on how to plan an answer to a ‘how far’ question by assigning a score out of 10 for how successful different events were for the League of Nations.  You might also like to watch this video about answering a question on how successful the League of Nations was in the 1920s.

The podcast goes on to detail different challenges faced by the League of Nations during the 1920s, in order to provide students with adequate evidence to support a balanced answer.  Specific attention is given to the Leagues’s successes in the Upper Silesia Dispute, the Aaland Islands, and Greco-Bulgarian Dispute.  Other successes of the League are given, such as the League’s social policies and the work of the various commissions.

The successes of League are then contrasted with the League’s failures during the same period.  Key examples of failure that are outlined include the Vilna Dispute, the Corfu Crisis, and disarmament.  For more detail on the League’s attempts at disarmament, and advice on how to answer a question about it, check out the exam tips video here.

          

The League of Nations in the 1920s