European Diplomacy before the First World War

Treaty of London 1839

The Treaty of London: Belgian independence and the First World War

The Treaty of London recognised and guaranteed the independence and neutrality of Belgium.

End of the Crimean War

The terms of the Treaty of Paris that ended the Crimean War

The Crimean War began in October 1853, having been triggered by disagreements between Russia and the Ottoman Empire regarding Russia’s right to protect the Orthodox Christian minority in the Ottoman-controlled Holy Land.

First World War – “The Killing Fields”

People’s Century was an excellent television series which focused on major events in the Twentieth Century.  In this episode, soldiers from all sides of World War I remember the trenches, the tactics, and the terrible nature and scale of the slaughter that shattered the old world order.  They remember recruitment, machine guns and mustard gas, aerial bombing, the trenches, Battles of Verdun and the Somme, conscientious objectors, military justice, American participation, and armistice.

PART 1

PART 2

PART 3

PART 4