Tag Archives: Weimar

Weimar-era cartoon predicts ‘wireless home phone & TV’

Weimar cartoon predicts 'wireless home phone & TV'. Great starter from bit.ly[f-slash]1rzL8U3

Weimar cartoon predicts ‘wireless home phone & TV’. Great starter from http://bit.ly/1rzL8U3

Hitler appointed Chancellor of Germany

Germany 1918-1945 Depth Study revision – quick links

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Weimar Germany 1919-1929

The situation in Germany after the First World War including early extremist uprisings (the Spartacist Revolt and the Kapp Putsch), the invasion of the Ruhr, and the causes and effects of hyperinflation. The appointment of Gustav Stresemann, the end of the occupation of the Ruhr, negotiation of the Dawes Plan, and the terms of Locarno Treaties.

The rise of Adolf Hitler,
1919-1929

Hitler’s early attitudes, control of the National Socialist German Workers Party, the actions of the SA/Stormtroopers and the Munich (Beer Hall) Putsch. Hitler's imprisonment and Mein Kampf, and how the ‘Stresemann period’ of German history led Hitler to use legal means in an attempt to gain political power.

The rise of Adolf Hitler, 1929-34

The effects of the Great Depression on Germany; the Presidential election campaign of 1932; the appointment of Hitler as Chancellor in 1933; the Reichstag Fire and the Enabling Act; the Night of the Long Knives; the death of President Hindenburg.

Nazi control of Germany, 1933-1945

Repression: Nazi control of the police and courts, the SS and the use of concentration camps, and the Gestapo.
Nazi achievements: assistance to farming communities, employment and improved working conditions. Middle-class and upper-class support.
Propaganda: role of the Reich Chamber of Culture; the effect of the radio; use of films; the 1936 Olympic Games in Berlin.

Life in Nazi Germany 1933-1945

Nazi systems for young people; the role of women and families within Nazi society; the experiences of minority groups under the Nazis.
Weimar Germany coat of arms

Establishment of the Weimar Republic: overview video

This short video provides an overview of the reasons for the establishment of the Weimar Republic.

Weimar Constitution

The signing of the Weimar Republic’s constitution

The Weimar Republic was officially established on 11th August 1919, when Friedrich Ebert signed the new constitution into law.

The National Assembly that created the constitution had convened in the city of Weimar, which is why the state of Germany from the inauguration of the new constitution until Hitler became Fuhrer is generally referred to as the Weimar Republic. However, its official name continued to be Deutsches Reich which had first been adopted in 1871.

The Weimar Republic was born amid civil strife and open revolt that engulfed cities across Germany in the closing weeks of the First World War. The November Revolution actually began at the end of October 1918, but quickly spread from the port of Kiel to reach as far as the southern city of Munich by the 7th November.

The “German Republic” was declared on the 9th November, shortly after Kaiser Wilhelm II’s abdication was announced. Power was swiftly transferred to Friedrich Ebert, who reluctantly accepted it and formed a coalition government known as the “Council of the People’s Deputies”. It was this government that therefore signed the armistice on the 11th November, and which authorised the brutal suppression of the Spartacist Uprising in January 1919. Just four days after the deaths of Spartacist leaders Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht elections for the National Assembly took place, which convened in Weimar in order to avoid the unrest in Berlin.

It took the best of part of seven months for the delegates to agree on the terms of the constitution, and Ebert signed it into law while on holiday in Schwarzburg.

Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg

The killing of Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg

On the 15th January 1919, Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht were killed by members of the Freikorps. The two German socialists were joint-founders of the Spartacist League and the Communist Party of Germany, and were captured following the Spartacist uprising that began on the 4th January.

Luxemburg and Liebknecht were members of the Social Democratic Party of Germany when Germany declared war in 1914. Frustrated by the wider SPD’s support for Germany’s declaration of war, they and other leftists created a separate organisation known as the Spartakusbund or Spartacus League. Named after the leader of the Roman Republic’s largest slave rebellion, the Spartacus League actively opposed the ongoing war. In 1916, both Luxemburg and Liebknecht were found guilty of high treason and imprisoned after they organised an anti-war demonstration.

They were released in 1918, and in December renamed the Spartacist League the Communist Party of Germany. By this point, following the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II, Germany was experiencing a post-war revolution. Friedrich Ebert, a centrist member of the SPD, had assumed the position of Chancellor but struggled to maintain control of the country. His government had begun to side with conservatives, while the left sought the establishment of a government based on workers’ councils.

On the 5th January thousands of people swarmed into the Berlin streets and began to occupy government and press officers. Two days later around half a million people began a general strike. By this point, however, Ebert had hired Freikorps to crush the revolt. They did so quickly, and violently. On the 15th January Luxemburg and Liebknecht were arrested, tortured, interrogated and executed.

Rentenmark

Introduction of the Rentenmark in Weimar Germany

On the 15th October 1923, the Rentenmark was introduced in Weimar Germany in an attempt to stop the hyperinflation crisis that had crippled the economy.

Gustav Stresemann’s finance minister, Hans Luther, introduced the new currency to replace the crisis-hit Papiermark in a plan devised jointly with Hjalmar Schacht at the Reichsbank who went on to be Minister of Economics in the early years of Hitler’s rule.

The French and Belgian Occupation of the Ruhr that began on the 11th January 1923 had been met with a policy of passive resistance by the German government. Although this succeeded in frustrating the occupying powers who sought to extract reparations payments in the form of natural resources, it also brought the economy in the Ruhr to a shuddering halt.

Since the strike had been called for by the government, the strikers and their families were eligible to receive income support. However, with falling tax revenues as a result of the lack of trade the government struggled to keep up with payments. In response they began printing money even though there was no product to base it on. The so-called Papiermark went into freefall as hyperinflation took hold, and the cabinet resigned in favour of a new one formed under Stresemann.

The new currency was backed by real estate – land that was used by businesses and agriculture – and was introduced at the rate of one Rentenmark to one trillion Papiermarks. With the currency now tied to something with physical value, hyperinflation was stopped in its tracks. The more commonly known Reichsmark was introduced the following year at the same value.

The Nazi Party in 1922

The Rise of Hitler 1919-1929 podcast

This revision podcast is relevant to both GCSE and IGCSE Modern World History.  It is the first of two podcasts that present an explanation of the range of factors that contributed to the rise of Hitler. It goes into more detail than the briefer podcast that covers the entire 1919-1934 period. You could also download the Rise of Hitler Revision PowerPoint which complements the two podcasts.

The podcast begins in 1919 with an introduction to Hitler’s early attitudes and him taking control of the National Socialist German Workers Party (who became known as the Nazis).  An overview is then given of the actions of the SA/Stormtroopers before describing how the hyperinflation of 1922-23 led Hitler to use his violent supporters to launch the Munich (or Beer Hall) Putsch. The consequences of the Putsch are considered, which include increased publicity for the Nazis and Hitler’s imprisonment during which he wrote Mein Kampf.

The podcast then goes on to explain how, during the ‘Stresemann period’ of German history, which is described in greater detail in the Weimar Germany revision podcast, Hitler changed his tactics to use legal means in an attempt to gain political power.

          

Overview of the Reichstag Fire and its consequences

On the 27th February 1933, the Reichstag building in Berlin was set on fire in an arson attack. Generally accepted to have been conducted by Dutch communist Marinus van der Lubbe, the fire provided the new Chancellor Adolf Hitler with an opportunity to consolidate Nazi control of the German government.

Hitler had been appointed Chancellor on the 30th January, but had demanded new elections for the Reichstag. These were scheduled to take place on the 5th March, and Hitler hoped to increase the Nazi’s share of the seats in order to pass the Enabling Act and take control of political decisions for himself.

Shortly after 9pm on the evening of the 27th February, Goebbels was informed that the Reichstag was on fire. Although the blaze was extinguished before midnight, the inside of the building was destroyed. Communists were declared responsible, and van der Lubbe was arrested.

The day after the fire, Hitler persuaded President Hindenburg to pass the emergency Decree of the Reich President for the Protection of People and State, which suspended many civil liberties and allowed the Nazis to arrest their opponents. Thousands of communists were rounded up by the SA, along with Social Democrats and liberals, and placed in so-called ‘protective custody’.

Van Der Lubbe was tried, convicted, and executed. Although there is debate over the exact circumstances of the fire, Sir Ian Kershaw says there is consensus among the vast majority of historians that he did set the fire. Whatever the circumstances, the situation was certainly exploited by the Nazis and was the first step in the creation of a single-party state.