Tag Archives: war

Dreadnought

The launch of the Dreadnought

On the 10th February 1906 the British King, Edward VII, launched HMS Dreadnought – a revolutionary new type of battleship that made all other ships obsolete. She was the fastest and most heavily-armed ship in the world, and the name Dreadnought began to be used to describe a whole class of similar ships.

You might think that having the best ship in the world would make Britain the undisputed champion of the seas, but the launch of the Dreadnought arguably created more problems than it solved.  Ever since the British government adopted the Two-Power Standard as part of the Naval Defence Act in 1889, the Royal Navy had to have at least the same number of battleships as the next two largest navies in the world combined.  At that point it was France and Russia, but by 1906 Wilhelm II had become Kaiser of Germany and began aggressive military expansion and the development of a German Empire under his ‘World Policy’ or Weltpolitik.

But why was the Dreadnought a problem to Britain the Two-Power Standard?  The issue was that Britain now only had one more Dreadnought than every other country in the world.  With all other ships obsolete in the wake of the new design, it was too easy for other countries to catch up.  When Germany launched the first of its Dreadnought-style Nassau ships in 1908, Britain was forced to keep ahead by building more and more.  The naval arms race and the tension that followed was a major contributing factor to the outbreak of the First World War in 1914.

Conflicts in the Balkans before the First World War

This revision podcast focuses on the ‘Eastern Question’ that affected the Balkans and threatened the European balance of power from the late 19th Century to the early 20th.  The episode stretches from the impact of the Congress of Berlin in 1878 to the Balkan Wars of 1912-13.  Particular focus is given to the rise nationalism and Pan-Slavism in the Balkan states and the effects of the Bosnian Crisis of 1908-9.

          

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The July Crisis and the outbreak of World War One

This revision podcast provides an overview of the July Crisis of 1914 that acted as the spark to World War One.  The episode begins with the events of 28th June when Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary was assassinated by the Black Hand Gang.  It then goes on to explore the impact of the assassination on the diplomatic actions of Germany and Austria-Hungary, including the ‘blank cheque’.  Finally, the podcast describes the actions of Russia, France and Britain as the major nation states of Europe fell in to war.

          

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Causes of the First World War – The July Crisis

Beginning with the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary, this video explores the 6-week period known as the July Crisis.  It explains the concept of Germany’s ‘Blank Cheque’ and how the alliance system caused the nations of Europe to become embroiled in what was now a ‘world’ war.  Reference is made to the Schlieffen Plan and how this led to Britain’s declaration of war.

Princip Sandwich

Gavrilo Princip’s sandwich myth and the causes of WW1

Since becoming a teacher, I’ve been disturbed by the number of people who claim that the First World War was caused by a sandwich.  Having read a huge amount of sources about the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, I’ve put together this video that presents a detailed look at the claim that Gavrilo Princip was able to assassinate Archduke Franz Ferdinand and cause the First World War because he went to buy a sandwich from Schiller’s Delicatessen.

My video was inspired by Mike Dash’s excellent article at http://blogs.smithsonianmag.com/history/2011/09/gavrilo-princips-sandwich/ – it’s well worth ten minutes of your time to read it.

Historiography: who was responsible for the First World War?

This is a different type of revision podcast as, rather than covering the details of events, it aims to provide a summary of key historians’ interpretations of them.  The podcast tracks the changing historiography of responsibility for the First World War over time.  Beginning with the attitude at the time of the Versailles Treaty, the podcast summarises the shift in interpretation through the inter-war period, the effect of World War 2, the 1960s and the Fischer Thesis, and post-Fischer revisionism.  Historians whose work is briefly mentioned include G. Lowes Dickinson, Sidney Fay, AJP Taylor, Luigi Albertini, Fritz Fischer, Niall Ferguson and John Keegan.

          

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The changing balance of power: Germany 1849-59

This revision podcast considers the reasons for the changing balance of power between Austria and Prussia following the revolutions of 1848-9.  Beginning with the Erfurt Union and the subsequent Declaration of Olmutz, the podcast goes on to consider the impact of key international events including the Crimean War and Austria’s war against Italy.  It also assesses the impact of events in the German States themselves, paying particular attention to Austria’s failed attempt to join the Zollverein and the effect of Prussia’s economic boom.

          

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The creation of the North German Confederation: 1862-66

Although this revision podcast covers a much shorter period of time than the previous episodes in the series, the sequence of events that led to the creation of the North German Confederation laid the foundation for the unification of Germany just five years later.  This podcast begins with the introduction of Von Roon’s army reforms and the appointment of Bismarck to the role of Chancellor.  It then goes on to explain how Bismarck refined his system of Realpolitik through the Polish Revolt, the Schleswig-Holstein Crisis and the Danish War which in turn led to the Convention of Gastein.  This episode ends with the Austro-Prussian War and the Peace of Prague – the final stage in Prussia’s subjugation of Austria – and the creation of the North German Confederation.

          

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The unification of Germany: 1866-71

The final episode in this series of revision podcasts concludes the process of German unification.  Beginning with the aftermath of the Peace of Prague and the creation of the North German Confederation, it provides an overview of France’s attempts to gain territory (including the Luxembourg Affair) in the face of increasing Prussian dominance.  Following a discussion of the Hohenzollern Candidature and Bismarck’s editing of the subsequent Ems Telegram, the podcast finishes with an account of Prussian victory in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-71.

          

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The Franco-Prussian War

This low-budget (but reasonably informative) video presents an overview of the events that led to the Franco-Prussian War and the subsequent German unification.