Tag Archives: Prussia
This image of the Franco-Prussian war monument, marked by bullet holes, was taken by photographer Lewis Bush (www.lewisbush.com) in Berlin during 2012 for The Memory of History.
Due to CIE changing their AS and A Level courses from the old specification (9697) to the shiny new 9389, there is a lack of past papers for students to use as part of their revision. While it is relatively easy to transfer essay questions to the new mark scheme, the source paper focus (AS Level Component 1) has changed from the Causes of World War One to Liberalism and Nationalism in Italy and Germany, 1848–1871.
I have created an example CIE AS Paper 1 for this topic, which you can download using the link below.
The paper can be marked using the generic CIE markscheme available for the Specimen Paper 1 from the CIE website here.
This revision podcast follows events from the first meeting of the Legislative Assembly in October 1791 to the execution of the King in January 1793. Growing tension between the revolutionaries and the King are explained through Louis’s decision to continue vetoing laws, the issuing of the Brunswick manifesto, and the King’s imprisonment in the Temple. As well as struggling to fight a war against Austria and Prussia, the revolutionary government was faced with internal struggles. The divisions between the deputies in the newly-elected National Convention are discussed against the backdrop of the September Massacres of 1792. The episode ends with an overview of the trial of Louis and his eventual execution by guillotine on January 21st 1793.
This A Level and IB History revision podcast charts the rise and fall of the Directory from 1794 to 1799. Beginning with the execution of Robespierre, the Thermidorean Reaction and the onset of the White Terror, it goes on to explore the terms of the Constitution of Year III. The challenges to the Directory are described, and the government’s various failures and successes are explained. The episode finishes with Napoleon and the Coup of Brumaire.
The Treaty of London recognised and guaranteed the independence and neutrality of Belgium.
In 1813 Napoleon’s rule of the Netherlands was ended by the combined armies of Russia and Prussia, and control was given to William Frederik of Orange-Nassau. Two years later, as a result of the Congress of Vienna, modern Belgium became part of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands.
These southern provinces were predominantly Catholic, and a sizeable number of the inhabitants spoke French. However, William clearly favoured Protestantism and had tried to impose Dutch as the official language. This led to tensions which were exacerbated by economic problems that included high unemployment and arguments over the effect of free trade on the less developed south. A revolution erupted in 1830 that led to the states declaring independence on 4 October, although William refused to recognise the independent Belgium for over nine years.
In signing the treaty that formally recognised the existence of the independent Kingdom of Belgium, the Netherlands were joined by Britain, Austria, France, Russia, and the German Confederation. Furthermore, Britain insisted that the signatories also recognise Belgium’s perpetual neutrality.
The neutrality clause was of central importance in the outbreak of the First World War, since Germany violated Belgium’s neutrality when its forces crossed the border in the Schlieffen Plan. Britain thus claimed to be upholding the Treaty of London when it declared war on 4 August 1914 – much to the anger of German Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg who couldn’t believe Britain would go to war over a ‘mere a scrap of paper’.
This revision podcast presents the background of German unification. Beginning with the Congress of Vienna in 1815, the podcast goes on to explore the opposing conservative and progressive factors at play in the early 19th Century. In terms of conservatism, we consider the impact of Metternich, the role of the nobles and the influence of the church. The growth of progressive factors such as the impact of the railways and industrialisation, the middle class, and the Zollverein are also considered.
This revision podcast presents the key factors that led to the failure of the revolutions in the German states. This is done through a consideration of the historiography of period. Particular focus is put on the work of Eric Eyck, Karl Marx, AJP Taylor and Bob Whitfield and the different interpretations they reached about the reasons for failure. Historical evidence is then presented that could be used to support their opinions.
This revision podcast considers the reasons for the changing balance of power between Austria and Prussia following the revolutions of 1848-9. Beginning with the Erfurt Union and the subsequent Declaration of Olmutz, the podcast goes on to consider the impact of key international events including the Crimean War and Austria’s war against Italy. It also assesses the impact of events in the German States themselves, paying particular attention to Austria’s failed attempt to join the Zollverein and the effect of Prussia’s economic boom.
Although this revision podcast covers a much shorter period of time than the previous episodes in the series, the sequence of events that led to the creation of the North German Confederation laid the foundation for the unification of Germany just five years later. This podcast begins with the introduction of Von Roon’s army reforms and the appointment of Bismarck to the role of Chancellor. It then goes on to explain how Bismarck refined his system of Realpolitik through the Polish Revolt, the Schleswig-Holstein Crisis and the Danish War which in turn led to the Convention of Gastein. This episode ends with the Austro-Prussian War and the Peace of Prague – the final stage in Prussia’s subjugation of Austria – and the creation of the North German Confederation.