Tag Archives: Nazi

Nazi society 'speed dating'

Support for Nazi policies – ‘Speed Dating’ activity

Students always show a keen interest in comparing and contrasting different social experiences within Nazi Germany. With this in mind I’ve created a series of character cards based on the experiences of workers, farmers, the middle class and ‘big business’. These can be used in many ways to gather and record information. ‘Speed dating’ is often a lively and successful activity.

Each student is given a character and then ‘dates’ each of the others, filling in a chart to record how the person has benefited or lost out under Nazi rule. They need to find their closest match, and should also identify the people who are most and least happy.

This leads to a lively plenary discussion about the range of experiences, and can be linked to work on Nazi systems of control.

You can download the Nazi Society character cards as well as a simple chart for recording findings here.

If you go with the speed dating idea, it’s quite fun to set the scene by having some relaxing/romantic music playing in the background.

You might follow this lesson up with some independent consolidation based on the life in Nazi Germany podcast, or show the excellent video clip about Nazi domestic policies 1933-36.

Hitler appointed Chancellor of Germany

Germany 1918-1945 Depth Study revision – quick links

Podcast LinkContent description

Weimar Germany 1919-1929

The situation in Germany after the First World War including early extremist uprisings (the Spartacist Revolt and the Kapp Putsch), the invasion of the Ruhr, and the causes and effects of hyperinflation. The appointment of Gustav Stresemann, the end of the occupation of the Ruhr, negotiation of the Dawes Plan, and the terms of Locarno Treaties.

The rise of Adolf Hitler,
1919-1929

Hitler’s early attitudes, control of the National Socialist German Workers Party, the actions of the SA/Stormtroopers and the Munich (Beer Hall) Putsch. Hitler's imprisonment and Mein Kampf, and how the ‘Stresemann period’ of German history led Hitler to use legal means in an attempt to gain political power.

The rise of Adolf Hitler, 1929-34

The effects of the Great Depression on Germany; the Presidential election campaign of 1932; the appointment of Hitler as Chancellor in 1933; the Reichstag Fire and the Enabling Act; the Night of the Long Knives; the death of President Hindenburg.

Nazi control of Germany, 1933-1945

Repression: Nazi control of the police and courts, the SS and the use of concentration camps, and the Gestapo.
Nazi achievements: assistance to farming communities, employment and improved working conditions. Middle-class and upper-class support.
Propaganda: role of the Reich Chamber of Culture; the effect of the radio; use of films; the 1936 Olympic Games in Berlin.

Life in Nazi Germany 1933-1945

Nazi systems for young people; the role of women and families within Nazi society; the experiences of minority groups under the Nazis.

The Road to World War II, 1933-39

This podcast is designed to present the key reasons for the breakout of World War 2 by explaining the different impacts of Hitler’s aims and actions, the policy of appeasement, the problems caused by the peace treaties, the Nazi-Soviet Pact and the failures of the League of Nations.

The first part of the podcast deals with Hitler’s aims: abolish the Treaty of Versailles, expand German territory, and remove the threat of communism.  It explains how his policies were designed to fulfill these aims.  Key actions from the first years of Hitler’s Chancellorship that are described include: rearmament, remilitarisation of the Rhineland, his role in the Spanish Civil War, and Anschluss with Austria.

The podcast then goes on to assess appeasement.  Arguments in favour of, and against, the policy of appeasement are presented.  This is followed by an explanation of the Sudetenland Crisis, the Munich Agreement and the Nazi-Soviet Pact.  The views of historians are considered.

This episode concludes with a brief explanation of how to answer an examination question on this topic.

          

The Nazi Party in 1922

The Rise of Hitler 1919-1929 podcast

This revision podcast is relevant to both GCSE and IGCSE Modern World History.  It is the first of two podcasts that present an explanation of the range of factors that contributed to the rise of Hitler. It goes into more detail than the briefer podcast that covers the entire 1919-1934 period. You could also download the Rise of Hitler Revision PowerPoint which complements the two podcasts.

The podcast begins in 1919 with an introduction to Hitler’s early attitudes and him taking control of the National Socialist German Workers Party (who became known as the Nazis).  An overview is then given of the actions of the SA/Stormtroopers before describing how the hyperinflation of 1922-23 led Hitler to use his violent supporters to launch the Munich (or Beer Hall) Putsch. The consequences of the Putsch are considered, which include increased publicity for the Nazis and Hitler’s imprisonment during which he wrote Mein Kampf.

The podcast then goes on to explain how, during the ‘Stresemann period’ of German history, which is described in greater detail in the Weimar Germany revision podcast, Hitler changed his tactics to use legal means in an attempt to gain political power.

          

Hindenburg and Hitler as Chancellor

The Rise of Hitler 1929-1934 podcast

This revision podcast is relevant to both GCSE and IGCSE History students studying Nazi Germany. It is the second of two podcasts that present an explanation of the range of factors that contributed to the rise of Hitler. It goes into more detail than the briefer podcast that covers the entire 1919-1934 period. You could also download the Rise of Hitler Revision PowerPoint which complements the two podcasts.

The podcast is the second of two that explore how Hitler came to power. This episode covers the period from the Wall Street Crash to Hitler’s self-appointment of the Fuhrer of Germany in 1934. Specific attention is given to:

* The effects of the Great Depression on Germany
* The Presidential election campaign of 1932
* The appointment of Hitler as Chancellor in 1933
* The Reichstag Fire and the Enabling Act
* The Night of the Long Knives
* The death of President Hindenburg

The revision guide aims to give clear examples for each of these factors, and explains how you might approach a question on them in the exam.

          

Hitler appointed Chancellor of Germany

The Rise of Hitler 1919-1934

For more detail on the rise of Hitler, please see these expanded podcasts:

The rise of Hitler 1919-29

The rise of Hitler 1929-34

The podcast begins in 1919 with an introduction to Hitler’s early attitudes and him taking control of the National Socialist German Workers Party (who became known as the Nazis).  An overview is then given of the actions of the SA/Stormtroopers before describing how the hyperinflation of 1922-23 led Hitler to use his violent supporters to launch the Munich (or Beer Hall) Putsch, which resulting in Hitler’s imprisonment during which he wrote Mein Kampf.  This coincided with the ‘Stresemann Period’ of German history, which is described in greater detail in the Weimar Germany revision podcast.

The episode then goes on to explain how, following his release from prison, Hitler changed his tactics to use legal means to gain political power.  The period of the Great Depression led to increasing support for the now well-organised Nazi party which culminted with the appointment of Hitler to the position of Chancellor.  An explanation of how Hitler consolidated his power is then given – the Reichstag Fire which led to the Enabling Act; the Night of the Long Knives through which Hitler removed opponents including Ernst Rohm; and finally Hitler taking the title of Fuhrer following the death of President Hindenburg.

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Hindenburg and Hitler as Chancellor

Hitler’s Rise to Power

An extract from a 1980s documentary called “Hitler’s Germany” – part of the BBC’s 20th Century History series of documentary programs.  Transferred from an VHS tape, so quality is variable – but it’s watchable and well presented.

Hitler appointed Chancellor of Germany

Hitler’s speech as Chancellor in 1933

Shortly after Adolf Hitler was appointed to the position of Chancellor by President Hindenberg, he made this speech to thousands of members of the Nazi Party.

Overview of the Reichstag Fire and its consequences

On the 27th February 1933, the Reichstag building in Berlin was set on fire in an arson attack. Generally accepted to have been conducted by Dutch communist Marinus van der Lubbe, the fire provided the new Chancellor Adolf Hitler with an opportunity to consolidate Nazi control of the German government.

Hitler had been appointed Chancellor on the 30th January, but had demanded new elections for the Reichstag. These were scheduled to take place on the 5th March, and Hitler hoped to increase the Nazi’s share of the seats in order to pass the Enabling Act and take control of political decisions for himself.

Shortly after 9pm on the evening of the 27th February, Goebbels was informed that the Reichstag was on fire. Although the blaze was extinguished before midnight, the inside of the building was destroyed. Communists were declared responsible, and van der Lubbe was arrested.

The day after the fire, Hitler persuaded President Hindenburg to pass the emergency Decree of the Reich President for the Protection of People and State, which suspended many civil liberties and allowed the Nazis to arrest their opponents. Thousands of communists were rounded up by the SA, along with Social Democrats and liberals, and placed in so-called ‘protective custody’.

Van Der Lubbe was tried, convicted, and executed. Although there is debate over the exact circumstances of the fire, Sir Ian Kershaw says there is consensus among the vast majority of historians that he did set the fire. Whatever the circumstances, the situation was certainly exploited by the Nazis and was the first step in the creation of a single-party state.

Night of the Long Knives

The Night of the Long Knives, 30th June 1934

The 30th June 1934 saw the Nazis carry out a purge of their own party, when Hitler ordered the SS to murder leading figures of the SA or Brownshirts along with critics of the Nazi regime such as former chancellor von Schleicher. The purges actually went on throughout the weekend of the 30th June – 2nd July, even though the popular name suggests they only lasted for one night.

By the middle of 1934 Hitler was consolidating his rule over Germany but the relative autonomy of the SA within the Nazi Party was a concern. As Germany became a one-party state, the SA’s usual political targets for street violence were removed meaning that in a number of cases these representatives of the ruling party would instead intimidate civilians.

Such actions undermined the sense of order that Hitler was trying to project, and threatened to destabilise the party itself. The SA’s leader, Ernst Röhm, was a particular concern as he sought a so-called “second-revolution” to redistribute wealth within Germany in order to fulfil the socialist part of the Nationalist Socialist party’s name. Furthermore, the Reichswehr – Germany’s official army – were unhappy at Röhm’s desire to place the Reichswehr under the command of the SA.

On the morning of the 30th June, the homes of Röhm and other people who threatened Hitler’s power were broken into. While some were executed on the spot, others such as Röhm himself were held in prison for a few hours first. Hitler justified the purge in a public speech, claiming that he acted as “the supreme judge of the German people.”