Tag Archives: Mussolini
This revision podcast is aimed at students studying GCSE and IGCSE History. It focuses on striking a balance between the successes and failures of the League of Nations in the 1920s, in order to best help students revise for an exam question on this topic. It opens with advice on how to plan an answer to a ‘how far’ question by assigning a score out of 10 for how successful different events were for the League of Nations. You might also like to watch this video about answering a question on how successful the League of Nations was in the 1920s.
The podcast goes on to detail different challenges faced by the League of Nations during the 1920s, in order to provide students with adequate evidence to support a balanced answer. Specific attention is given to the Leagues’s successes in the Upper Silesia Dispute, the Aaland Islands, and Greco-Bulgarian Dispute. Other successes of the League are given, such as the League’s social policies and the work of the various commissions.
The successes of League are then contrasted with the League’s failures during the same period. Key examples of failure that are outlined include the Vilna Dispute, the Corfu Crisis, and disarmament. For more detail on the League’s attempts at disarmament, and advice on how to answer a question about it, check out the exam tips video here.
This video presents an overview of the key issues surrounding the League of Nations’ attempts to achieve disarmament in the 1930s, and goes on the examine Italy’s invasion of Abyssinia.
On the 19th October 1935, the League of Nations voted to impose sanctions on Italy after it invaded Abyssinia. The sanctions were limited, however, and failed to restrict oil sales to Italy or access to the Suez Canal which was used to transport troops, equipment and supplies.
The Italian invasion began without a declaration of war on the 3rd October 1935, although the two nations had previously been embroiled in a territorial dispute over the Walwal Oasis throughout which both countries had flexed their military muscles. However, the decisive invasion of Ethiopia by Italian troops stationed in nearby Eritrea saw the League of Nations declare Mussolini’s country the aggressor four days later.
Although the speed at which the League acted was considerably quicker than during the Manchuria Crisis in which the League took a year to respond, the sanctions themselves were virtually worthless. Concerned about the rise of Hitler and the danger of a European conflict, Britain and France were reluctant to punish Italy in case they were driven to ally with the Nazi dictator. They even began to formulate the secret Hoare-Laval Plan that would have granted large parts of Abyssinia to Italy, but were forced to cancel this when details became public and were met with popular opposition.
Even after it became evident that Mussolini was using chemical weapons, the League continued in its failure to impose stringent sanctions. With Hitler’s remilitarisation of the Rhineland in March 1936, France was desperate to keep Mussolini as an ally. When Abyssinia was finally captured on May 5th, all the sanctions were dropped.
This revision podcast was originally created for IGCSE History students completing a Paper 2 (sources) exam based on the Spanish Civil War. However, it is appropriate for other students who wish to gain an overview of Germany’s involvement as it looks at three key issues. Firstly a quick background to the Civil War itself, secondly a consideration of why Germany got involved, and finally a discussion of what Germany contributed to the Spanish Civil War.
The first part of the podcast presents an overview of General Franco’s nationalist uprising with reference to the republican government, the forces on each side in the conflict, and the Non-Intervention Committee.
The second section looks at reasons for why Germany got involved in the Spanish Civil War. The causes assessed in the revision podcast are Hitler’s hatred of communism, the opportunity to test new equipment, the possibility of developing an alliance with Italy, and access to Spanish raw materials.
The final part of the episode considers the impact of German involvement. Particular attention is given to the impact of the Condor Legion at Guernica.
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On the 26th July 1936, Adolf Hitler informed General Francisco Franco that Germany would support his Nationalist rebellion in Spain.
Benito Mussolini, the leader of Italy, also agreed to intervene in the war on the Nationalist side after being encouraged to do so by Hitler. Although both countries later signed the Non-Intervention Agreement, they continued to send troops and equipment to support Franco’s forces.
The Spanish Civil War broke out on the 17th July, when an army uprising against the Spanish Second Republic that began in Morocco spread to the mainland. In the face of early rebel gains, the Republican government sought assistance from France and the USSR. Meanwhile the Nationalists turned to the right-wing governments of Germany and Italy.
Hitler in particular had a number of reasons for getting involved. As well as giving him the opportunity to take action against what he called “communist barbarism”, assisting Franco would win Germany an important ally and access to Spain’s natural resources. Militarily, German involvement also provided an opportunity to test the new equipment developed since the Nazi rearmament programme began in 1933.
Both Hitler and Mussolini were concerned about the risk of the Spanish Civil War escalating into a European-wide conflict, so at first their support for the Nationalists was small-scale and consisted mainly of transporting existing Spanish troops from Morocco to the mainland. However, as the war progessed their involvement grew. The German Condor Legion in particular began to take an active role in the aerial bombing of Republican areas, most notably the Basque town of Guernica, on the 26th April 1937.
These two clips present the reasons for international intervention and non-intervention in the Spanish Civil War.