Tag Archives: Louis XVI
This revision podcast presents the background to the French Revolution. Beginning with the impact of the Enlightenment on 18th Century Europe, it goes on to examine a variety of factors that led to the Revolution. Long-term issues that are covered include the Estates System, the emergence of the bourgeoisie and the changing economy, taxation and financial problems, and the effect of the population increase. Shorter term causes that are explained include the impact of King Louis XVI, the Assembly of the Notables, the Estates General, and the Tennis Court Oath. Factors are explained thematically to make it easier to organise ideas during revision, and it’s hoped that this will in turn help you create a well-structured answer.
First-hand accounts from 18th Century writer Arthur Young, who travelled through France in the years before the revolution. Excellent overview of the inequality of life between the French peasantry compared to that of the nobility. Extract from Curriculum Bites.
On the 20th June 1789 at Versailles in France, the National Assembly swore the Tennis Court Oath in which they vowed not to separate until a written constitution had been established for the country.
Faced with enormous financial difficulties, Louis XVI had called a meeting of the Estates General that first convened in early May. This involved representatives of the three Estates – the clergy, the nobility and the non-privileged common people known as the Third Estate – meeting with the king at Versailles in an attempt to solve the economic crisis. However, the allocation of votes was unfair so the representatives of the Third Estate separated themselves from the main group and met separately. On the 13th June, by which time they had been joined by some nobles and the majority of the clergy, they declared themselves the National Assembly.
However, when the king ordered their usual meeting room to be closed and guarded by soldiers, the National Assembly feared that the king was about to force them to disband. The National Assembly instead relocated to a nearby building used for playing jeu de paume, a forerunner of modern tennis, where they swore the oath. The Tennis Court Oath therefore didn’t really happen in a tennis court, but the name has stuck.
The Oath was significant for being a collective action by French citizens against their king. Faced with such opposition Louis finally relented and, on June 27th, he ordered the remaining nobles to join the National Assembly and ended the Estates General.
This revision podcast is designed for students studying the French Revolution. Beginning with the storming of the Bastille on 14 July 1789, this episode explores the first phase of the revolution up to the summer of 1791. Beginning with the August Decrees and the Declaration of the Rights of Man, it goes on to explore the challenges faced by the Constituent Assembly. The terms of the Civil Constitution of the Clergy are explained before going on to present an overview of the terms of the Constitution published in September. The podcast then explores the challenges to the revolution including the emigrées, divisions between the Jacobins and the Girondins, and the role of foreign powers. The episode concludes with an overview of the Flight to Varennes and the demonstration at the Champs de Mars.
A great diagram to illustrate the political spectrum during the French Revolution. Original source unknown.
This revision podcast follows events from the first meeting of the Legislative Assembly in October 1791 to the execution of the King in January 1793. Growing tension between the revolutionaries and the King are explained through Louis’s decision to continue vetoing laws, the issuing of the Brunswick manifesto, and the King’s imprisonment in the Temple. As well as struggling to fight a war against Austria and Prussia, the revolutionary government was faced with internal struggles. The divisions between the deputies in the newly-elected National Convention are discussed against the backdrop of the September Massacres of 1792. The episode ends with an overview of the trial of Louis and his eventual execution by guillotine on January 21st 1793.