Tag Archives: Gulf

Saddam Hussein

The Rise of Saddam Hussein

This revision podcast is aimed at GCSE and IGCSE History students, although AS and IB students may find it a helpful introduction to events in the Gulf in the later 20th Century.  This episode focuses on the factors that allowed Saddam Hussein to come to power in Iraq in 1979.

The podcast breaks Saddam’s rise to power into three key areas: his dominance of the Ba’ath Party, a series of social and economic policies that benefited the vast majority of Iraqis, and a ruthless system of terror and repression that dealt with anyone who dared to oppose him.

The revision guide aims to give clear examples for each of these factors, and explain how each of them contributed to Saddam’s rise to power.

     

Saddam Hussein

Saddam Hussein’s Rule of Iraq

This revision podcast is relevant to both GCSE and IGCSE History students, although AS and IB students may find it a helpful introduction to events in the Gulf in the later 20th Century.  This episode aims explain the factors that allowed Saddam Hussein to maintain his rule of Iraq after he became President in 1979.

The podcast breaks Saddam’s rule into three key areas: his control of the Ba’ath party, his use of repression and violence against his enemies, and his use of economic and social policy alongside propaganda to maintain the support of the population.

The revision guide aims to give clear examples for each of these factors, and explain how each of them contributed to Saddam remaining in power for a quarter of a century.

     

Iranian Revolution 1979

Why was there a revolution in Iran in 1979?

This revision podcast is relevant to both GCSE and IGCSE History students, , although AS and IB students may find it a helpful introduction to events in the Gulf in the later 20th Century.  The aim is to present an explanation of the factors that led to the Iranian Revolution in 1979.

The podcast explores three key factors:

  • Dissatisfaction with Shah’s government and his handling of the economic and social problems in Iran
  • A widespread anti-Western attitude as a result of the Shah’s close relationship with Britain and the USA
  • The role and impact of Ayatollah Khomeini

The revision guide aims to give clear examples for each of these factors, and explain how they contributed to the revolution that transformed Iran into a theocracy.

     

Last Shah of Iran

The overthrow of the Shah in the Iranian Revolution, 1979

On the 11th February 1979 Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, the last Shah of Iran, was overthrown as a result of the Iranian Revolution. His overthrow saw the end of the 2,500 year old monarchy in Iran and ushered in a theocracy overseen by the Ayatollah Khomeini.

Under the Shah, Iran enjoyed immense wealth built on an abundant supply of oil, although the vast majority of the population continued to live in poverty. The Shah, who had come to power in 1941, tried to secure support by using oil money to modernize Iran. However these reforms, known as the ‘White Revolution’ were interpreted by some as pandering to Western ideals that went against Iran’s traditions.

Despite the establishment of the brutal SAVAK secret police, a growing number of Iranians were increasingly turning against the Shah. They found a leader in the Muslim scholar Ayatollah Khomeini who, despite being forced into exile in 1964, continued to be a vocal critic of the Shah’s government. He played down his intention to establish an Islamic government, focusing instead on his desire to overthrow the Shah.

On September 8th 1978, over 500 people were killed by soldiers on what became known as ‘Black Friday’. The Shah’s attempts to restore calm had no effect on the public, who continued to call for his removal.

Recognising that his overthrow was becoming inevitable, the Shah and his wife left Iran on January 15 for the USA. Khomeini returned to Iran two weeks later. Finally, on the 11th February the Supreme Military Council ordered all troops back to their barracks, effectively handing control to Khomeini and his supporters.

Iran-Iraq War

Causes and Consequences of the Iran-Iraq War, 1980-88

This revision podcast is relevant to both GCSE and IGCSE History students, although AS and IB students may find it a helpful introduction to events in the Gulf in the later 20th Century.

The podcast looks at three key factors:

  • The different causes of the war, including Iran’s threat to Saddam’s regime, the opportunity for Iraq to gain territory and oil, and timing
  • The nature of how the war was fought, including the impact of foreign powers
  • The consequences of the war for each nation

The revision guide aims to give clear examples for each of these factors, and explain how students might approach a question on them in the exam.

     

kuwait_invasion_map

Origins of the First Gulf War

This revision podcast is aimed at GCSE and IGCSE History students, although AS and IB students may find it a helpful introduction to events in the Gulf in the later 20th Century.  This episode focuses on the origins of the Gulf War, with a focus on the causes and consequences of Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait in 1990.

The podcast begins with an overview of the background factors to the invasion of Kuwait, and then outlines the events of the invasion itself. The podcast concludes with a description of the effect that the invasion had on the international community, and how foreign nations responded.

The revision guide aims to give clear examples for each of these issues, and provide an explanation of how the events contributed to international action against Iraq that was to become known as the First Gulf War.

     

Operation Desert Storm

The start of Operation Desert Storm and the First Gulf War

On the 17th January 1991, the combat phase of the Gulf War began as Operation Desert Storm was launched to destroy Iraq’s military and civilian infrastructure through an enormous aerial bombing campaign. Over 2,250 coalition aircraft flew in excess of 1,000 sorties a day for five weeks, after which the ground campaign to force Iraqi troops from Kuwait began.

The trigger for the Gulf War was Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait on the 2nd August, 1990. Driven by a desire to seize Kuwait’s vast oil reserves and relieve Iraq of crippling debts accrued during the Iran-Iraq War, the invasion was completed within just three days. International condemnation of Iraq was immediate and far-reaching.  The UN began by imposing complete economic sanctions, but on the 29th November 1990 gave Iraq an ultimatum: withdraw from Kuwait by the 15th January 1991 or face military force. In preparation, US Secretary of State James Baker secured support from 34 separate countries for a multi-national coalition force.

Meanwhile over 500,000 troops were sent to defend Saudi Arabia as part of Operation Desert Shield, in case Iraq chose to attack. However, even as the UN’s deadline approached Saddam refused to withdraw from Kuwait. Consequently Operation Desert Storm began shortly after midnight on the 17th January. Just a few hours later, Saddam Hussein appeared on state radio saying that “The great duel, the mother of all battles has begun. The dawn of victory nears as this great showdown begins.” He couldn’t have been more wrong. Following five weeks of aerial bombardment, the Coalition’s ground assault forced the Iraqi troops from Kuwait in just four days.

Gulf War

The First Gulf War: Course and Consequences

This revision podcast is aimed at GCSE and IGCSE History students, although AS and IB students may find it a helpful introduction to events in the Gulf in the later 20th Century.  This episode focuses on the events and the aftermath of the First Gulf War.

The podcast begins with an overview of Operation Desert Shield and Iraq’s retaliation, before moving on to the effect of the ground invasion by Coalition forces. The podcast concludes with a description of the UN weapons inspection and the economic sanctions imposed by the ceasefire.

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