Tag Archives: constitution

The first phase of the French Revolution, 1789 – 91

This revision podcast is designed for students studying the French Revolution.  Beginning with the storming of the Bastille on 14 July 1789, this episode explores the first phase of the revolution up to the summer of 1791.  Beginning with the August Decrees and the Declaration of the Rights of Man, it goes on to explore the challenges faced by the Constituent Assembly.  The terms of the Civil Constitution of the Clergy are explained before going on to present an overview of the terms of the Constitution published in September.  The podcast then explores the challenges to the revolution including the emigrées, divisions between the Jacobins and the Girondins, and the role of foreign powers.  The episode concludes with an overview of the Flight to Varennes and the demonstration at the Champs de Mars.

          

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The execution of Louis XVI

The French Revolution: Radicalisation of the Revolution, 1791-93

This revision podcast follows events from the first meeting of the Legislative Assembly in October 1791 to the execution of the King in January 1793.  Growing tension between the revolutionaries and the King are explained through Louis’s decision to continue vetoing laws, the issuing of the Brunswick manifesto, and the King’s imprisonment in the Temple.  As well as struggling to fight a war against Austria and Prussia, the revolutionary government was faced with internal struggles.  The divisions between the deputies in the newly-elected National Convention are discussed against the backdrop of the September Massacres of 1792.  The episode ends with an overview of the trial of Louis and his eventual execution by guillotine on January 21st 1793.

          

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Weimar Constitution

The signing of the Weimar Republic’s constitution

The Weimar Republic was officially established on 11th August 1919, when Friedrich Ebert signed the new constitution into law.

The National Assembly that created the constitution had convened in the city of Weimar, which is why the state of Germany from the inauguration of the new constitution until Hitler became Fuhrer is generally referred to as the Weimar Republic. However, its official name continued to be Deutsches Reich which had first been adopted in 1871.

The Weimar Republic was born amid civil strife and open revolt that engulfed cities across Germany in the closing weeks of the First World War. The November Revolution actually began at the end of October 1918, but quickly spread from the port of Kiel to reach as far as the southern city of Munich by the 7th November.

The “German Republic” was declared on the 9th November, shortly after Kaiser Wilhelm II’s abdication was announced. Power was swiftly transferred to Friedrich Ebert, who reluctantly accepted it and formed a coalition government known as the “Council of the People’s Deputies”. It was this government that therefore signed the armistice on the 11th November, and which authorised the brutal suppression of the Spartacist Uprising in January 1919. Just four days after the deaths of Spartacist leaders Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht elections for the National Assembly took place, which convened in Weimar in order to avoid the unrest in Berlin.

It took the best of part of seven months for the delegates to agree on the terms of the constitution, and Ebert signed it into law while on holiday in Schwarzburg.