GCSE and IGCSE History Revision
|Tips and tricks to answer GCSE and IGCSE History sourcework questions accurately. Many of the hints are good practice with for any sourcework paper. The guide covers sourcework questions on: Comprehension, Comprehension in Context, Reliability/Usefulness/Value, Source Comparisons, Interpretation.|
|Guidance and advice for answering questions on CIE IGCSE History Paper 2 (the source paper) by looking at how marks are awarded, and comments from the examiner's report.|
|Advice for students answering questions on Paper 4 of the CIE IGCSE History exam (alternative to coursework) which focuses on your chosen Depth Study.|
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|The ‘Big Three’ and their different aims. Reference to the attitude of people at home, the effect of the war, and the arguments for and against treating Germany harshly.|
|The terms of the Treaty and an assessment of Germany’s reaction. How to approach an exam question about ‘how fair’ the Treaty of Versailles really was.|
|The aims of the Big Three at the Conference, and the terms of the Treaty of Versailles. Download the I/GCSE History revision podcast, then look through the Paris Peace Conference PowerPoint.|
|The successes and failures of the League of Nations in the 1920s, along with suggested ways to approach these in IGCSE and GCSE History exams.|
|The major events of the 1930s for the League of Nations including the Manchuria Crisis, the World Disarmament Conference and the Abyssinia Crisis.|
|The events in the run-up to World War 2 including Hitler's actions and the policy of Appeasement.|
|What the Spanish Civil War was, why Germany got involved, and what they contributed. Originally created for CIE IGCSE History students, but relevant to all students who want to know more about this topic.|
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|The relationship between the USA and the USSR following the Second World War. Includes Stalin’s control of eastern Europe, Truman Doctrine, Marshall Aid, Berlin Blockade.|
|The revolts in Hungary 1956 and Czechoslovakia 1968. Details of the two uprisings are given in overview, and then the two events are assessed for similarities and differences.|
|Castro’s Cuba, the U2 photos and the missile bases, Kennedy’s choices, and the eventual resolution of the crisis.|
|The reasons for the USA’s involvement in Vietnam, the way the war was fought, and how and why America pulled out.|
|Solidarity, Gorbachev, and the collapse of Soviet control over Eastern Europe.|
This revision podcast is aimed at GCSE and IGCSE History students, although AS and IB students may find it a helpful introduction to events in the Gulf in the later 20th Century. This episode focuses on the factors that allowed Saddam Hussein to come to power in Iraq in 1979.
The podcast breaks Saddam’s rise to power into three key areas: his dominance of the Ba’ath Party, a series of social and economic policies that benefited the vast majority of Iraqis, and a ruthless system of terror and repression that dealt with anyone who dared to oppose him.
The revision guide aims to give clear examples for each of these factors, and explain how each of them contributed to Saddam’s rise to power.
This revision podcast is relevant to both GCSE and IGCSE History students, although AS and IB students may find it a helpful introduction to events in the Gulf in the later 20th Century. This episode aims explain the factors that allowed Saddam Hussein to maintain his rule of Iraq after he became President in 1979.
The podcast breaks Saddam’s rule into three key areas: his control of the Ba’ath party, his use of repression and violence against his enemies, and his use of economic and social policy alongside propaganda to maintain the support of the population.
The revision guide aims to give clear examples for each of these factors, and explain how each of them contributed to Saddam remaining in power for a quarter of a century.
This revision podcast is relevant to both GCSE and IGCSE History students, , although AS and IB students may find it a helpful introduction to events in the Gulf in the later 20th Century. The aim is to present an explanation of the factors that led to the Iranian Revolution in 1979.
The podcast explores three key factors:
- Dissatisfaction with Shah’s government and his handling of the economic and social problems in Iran
- A widespread anti-Western attitude as a result of the Shah’s close relationship with Britain and the USA
- The role and impact of Ayatollah Khomeini
The revision guide aims to give clear examples for each of these factors, and explain how they contributed to the revolution that transformed Iran into a theocracy.
On the 11th February 1979 Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, the last Shah of Iran, was overthrown as a result of the Iranian Revolution. His overthrow saw the end of the 2,500 year old monarchy in Iran and ushered in a theocracy overseen by the Ayatollah Khomeini.
Under the Shah, Iran enjoyed immense wealth built on an abundant supply of oil, although the vast majority of the population continued to live in poverty. The Shah, who had come to power in 1941, tried to secure support by using oil money to modernize Iran. However these reforms, known as the ‘White Revolution’ were interpreted by some as pandering to Western ideals that went against Iran’s traditions.
Despite the establishment of the brutal SAVAK secret police, a growing number of Iranians were increasingly turning against the Shah. They found a leader in the Muslim scholar Ayatollah Khomeini who, despite being forced into exile in 1964, continued to be a vocal critic of the Shah’s government. He played down his intention to establish an Islamic government, focusing instead on his desire to overthrow the Shah.
On September 8th 1978, over 500 people were killed by soldiers on what became known as ‘Black Friday’. The Shah’s attempts to restore calm had no effect on the public, who continued to call for his removal.
Recognising that his overthrow was becoming inevitable, the Shah and his wife left Iran on January 15 for the USA. Khomeini returned to Iran two weeks later. Finally, on the 11th February the Supreme Military Council ordered all troops back to their barracks, effectively handing control to Khomeini and his supporters.
This revision podcast is relevant to both GCSE and IGCSE History students, although AS and IB students may find it a helpful introduction to events in the Gulf in the later 20th Century.
The podcast looks at three key factors:
- The different causes of the war, including Iran’s threat to Saddam’s regime, the opportunity for Iraq to gain territory and oil, and timing
- The nature of how the war was fought, including the impact of foreign powers
- The consequences of the war for each nation
The revision guide aims to give clear examples for each of these factors, and explain how students might approach a question on them in the exam.
This revision podcast is aimed at GCSE and IGCSE History students, although AS and IB students may find it a helpful introduction to events in the Gulf in the later 20th Century. This episode focuses on the origins of the Gulf War, with a focus on the causes and consequences of Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait in 1990.
The podcast begins with an overview of the background factors to the invasion of Kuwait, and then outlines the events of the invasion itself. The podcast concludes with a description of the effect that the invasion had on the international community, and how foreign nations responded.
The revision guide aims to give clear examples for each of these issues, and provide an explanation of how the events contributed to international action against Iraq that was to become known as the First Gulf War.
On the 17th January 1991, the combat phase of the Gulf War began as Operation Desert Storm was launched to destroy Iraq’s military and civilian infrastructure through an enormous aerial bombing campaign. Over 2,250 coalition aircraft flew in excess of 1,000 sorties a day for five weeks, after which the ground campaign to force Iraqi troops from Kuwait began.
The trigger for the Gulf War was Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait on the 2nd August, 1990. Driven by a desire to seize Kuwait’s vast oil reserves and relieve Iraq of crippling debts accrued during the Iran-Iraq War, the invasion was completed within just three days. International condemnation of Iraq was immediate and far-reaching. The UN began by imposing complete economic sanctions, but on the 29th November 1990 gave Iraq an ultimatum: withdraw from Kuwait by the 15th January 1991 or face military force. In preparation, US Secretary of State James Baker secured support from 34 separate countries for a multi-national coalition force.
Meanwhile over 500,000 troops were sent to defend Saudi Arabia as part of Operation Desert Shield, in case Iraq chose to attack. However, even as the UN’s deadline approached Saddam refused to withdraw from Kuwait. Consequently Operation Desert Storm began shortly after midnight on the 17th January. Just a few hours later, Saddam Hussein appeared on state radio saying that “The great duel, the mother of all battles has begun. The dawn of victory nears as this great showdown begins.” He couldn’t have been more wrong. Following five weeks of aerial bombardment, the Coalition’s ground assault forced the Iraqi troops from Kuwait in just four days.